(Source: The… Niccolo di Pietro Gerini’s Scourging of the Four Crowned Martyrs (1385-90) depicts a scene in which four martyrs are pursued by a group of men with some scourging tool (which resembles a modern-day rake). Severus, Serverianus, Carpophorus, and Victorinus, four brothers, were cruelly tortured until they expired in the hands of their tormentors. At the time,… The Four Crowned Martyrs are actually two groups, with a total of nine or ten martyrs. According to tradition the Four Crowned Martyrs (d. 305 A.D.) were renowned sculptors living in what is today Austria-Hungary. They have been venerated since the fourth century and … In A.D. 619, a church is Canterbury was dedicated to the Four Crowned Martyrs. Because their names were originally unknown, they were called the Four Crowned Martyrs. FOUR brothers in the persecution of Dioclesian, employed in offices of trust and honour at Rome, were apprehended for declaring against the worship of idols, and whipped with scourges loaded with plummets of lead, till they expired in the hands of their tormentors. The Four Crowned Martyrs are closely associated with an earlier group of four soldiers, also killed during the persecutions of Diocletian two years before, who died by being beaten to death with leaden clubs after refusing to sacrifice to the god Aesculapius. From ancient times the relicks of four unknown Martyrs have been venerated at Rome, under the name of the Four Crowned Ones. A.D. 304. Thereby the people of God have had a continuous memorial of the many unknown soldiers of Christ, whose faithfulness is crowned in heaven, even if they be without honour in this world. They were commissioned by Roman Emperor Diocletian to make several sculptures; however, when he requested a sculpture of the pagan god Aesculapius for a heathen temple, they refused to carve it. In the persecution under Diocletian, Sts. They were at first known simply as four Christians who had won the crown of martyrdom and continued to be so styled even after their names were learned. 19-8). Nanni di Banco, di Banco At the Monastery of San Marco, ________ and his assistants frescoed paintings in the cells of the monks and their community rooms. The first five were masons or sculptors in Pannonia, martyred in 305. The second was a group of four martyrs, names unknown. As late as 1481 an Article for the regulation of craftsmen in London (Masons Company) reads: "That every freeman of the Craft shall attend Christian church (within Aldgate) on the Feast of Quatuor Coronati, to hear Mass, under penalty of 12 pence.' The Four Crowned Martyrs were venerated early in England, with St. Bede noting that there was a church dedicated to them in Canterbury.This veneration can perhaps be accounted by the fact that Augustine of Canterbury came from a monastery near the basilica of Santi Quattro Coronati in Rome or because their relics were sent from Rome to England in 601. The designer and artist, Nanni di Banco, was a member of the Guild of Stone and Woodworkers. The Four Crowned Brothers, Martyrs. THE FOUR CROWNED MARTYRS. The Four Crowned Martyrs. Four Crowned Martyrs is a sculptural group by Nanni di Banco.It forms part of a cycle of fourteen sculptures commissioned by the guilds of Florence for external niches of Orsanmichele, each sculpture showing that guild's patron saint.This sculpture was commissioned by the Arte dei Maestri di Pietra e Legname and completed around 1416-1417. 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