Common name: Common Yellow Monkeyflower, Seep Monkey Flower Latin name: Mimulus guttatus. Family. Erythranthe, the monkey-flowers and musk-flowers, is a diverse plant genus with at least 111 members (as of 2017) in the family Phrymaceae. [47], A large number of the species grow in moist to wet soils with some growing even in shallow water. Some currently recognized species may be just variants of other species: E. arenicola, E. brachystylis, E. regni. It’s one of three members of the genus Mimulus that you may encounter in the Golden Gate National Parks. Scientific Name: Catalpa speciosa. E. guttata is 5–80 cm (2–31 in) tall with disproportionately large 5–20 mm (0.2–0.8 in) long, tubular flowers. The stems are often reddish. Agastache scrophulariifolia. 1885. The perennial form spreads with stolons or rhizomes. In the latter form, roots may develop at lower leaf nodes. [33] Molecular geneticists regard the species broadly as including both perennial and annual populations, but there is rationale for treating this complex as several distinct species (perennials are E. guttata, E. grandis, and E. corallina; annuals are E. microphylla and others). Flower Shape, Flower Colour and Pollinator Preference in Chilean, "A Taxonomic Conspectus of Phyrmaceae: A Narrowed Circumscription for, "Speciation by genome duplication: Repeated origins and genomic composition of the recently formed allopolyploid species Mimulus peregrinus", "Whatever happened to the Scrophulariaceae? [14], Erythranthe alsinoides is similar to several species found in the Pacific Northwest. The fruits are capsules. The petiole is about the same length. The common name is rather mysterious, because the funnel-shaped flowers have open, five-lobed faces with an upper and lower lip. [5] A minimum of 25 of the species are listed as threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The opening to the flower is hairy. [4], Erythranthe lewisii is a model system for studying pollinator-based reproductive isolation. In either case, the low-growing flowers are a good way to brighten up the shade. f.) Kuntze Philippine medusa (Engl.) Fruiting pedicels are longer than calyces. [5][33] The genome sequence of E. guttata was released in late spring, 2007. Mimulus /ˈmɪmjuːləs/[1] is a plant genus in the family Phrymaceae, which was traditionally placed in family Scrophulariaceae. Calyces have sharp, definite angles and flat sides. The most common color by far is a peach or light salmon color. [62][63], This is a listing of Erythranthe per Tropicos in February 2017, unless listed as "newly discovered":[64], In a 2014 paper, G. L. Nesom and N. S. Fraga placed Erythranthe members into the following 12 sections, unless listed as "newly discovered":[71], Genus of flowering plants in the family Phrymaceae, International Union for Conservation of Nature, List of Erythranthe, monkey-flower diseases, "Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum) 1996", "Genetic divergence causes parallel evolution of flower color in Chilean, "Butterflies and Their Larval Foodplants", "E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia, "Canadian Wildflowers: Erythranthe tilingii", "Genetically appropriate choices for plant materials to maintain biological diversity", "Is Floral Diversification Associated with Pollinator Divergence? There are about 175,000 known species of dicots. Erythranthe guttata, with the common names seep monkeyflowerand common yellow monkeyflower, is a yellow bee-pollinatedannual or perennial plant. Mimulus aurantiacus Curtis. Bush Monkey Flower. [59][unreliable source?] Common Name: Catawba Tree, Monkey Cigar Tree. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. E. lutea has been used for cooking in Peru. Sci. Family: SCROPHULARIACEAE Height: 4-31.5 inches Description: Mimulus guttatus is a highly variable plant, taking many forms. [28], Views on the evolutionary position of the monkey-flower species have changed. 24 No one admits to seeing a monkey face in the flower. Evidence tentatively indicates that the perennials evolved from annual ancestors, although some evidence has been interpreted to indicate that E. nasuta evolved from E. guttata in central California between 500,000 and 200,000 years ago and since then become primarily a self-pollinator. The … French names: Mimule à fleurs entrouvertes Family: Lopseed Family (Phrymaceae), (Figwort Family (Scrophulariaceae)) Flowers: Summer; Blue/Violet; Irregular flowers Leaves: Opposite/Whorled, Simple Height: 45-90 cm (17-35 in) Habitat: Wet Areas Grows in Sun/Shade: Sun Books: Newcomb's Wildflower Guide: 100 When Meriwether Lewis and William Clark’s Corps of Discovery started on their western trek to the Pacific Ocean in 1804, most of the plant species of western North America were still unknown to the scientific world. [49][50] Some species grow in dry areas, others in wet habitats, such as members of the section Simiolus, which are hydrophilic. "Pollinator preference and the evolution of floral traits in monkeyflowers (, "Correlated Matings in the Partial Selfer, "Monkeyflower is a Drought Tolerant Addition to Your Landscape", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Erythranthe&oldid=975271784, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking reliable references from April 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 August 2020, at 18:05. "Conspicuous Problems and Interesting Directions in Monkeyflower Sect. [8], "A Taxonomic Conspectus of Phrymaceae: A Narrowed Circumscription for, "Speciation by genome duplication: Repeated origins and genomic composition of the recently formed allopolyploid species, Mimulus Database - for genetics researchers, Mimulus Genome Browser - for genetics researchers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mimulus&oldid=992863758, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 14:35. The name salep has been claimed to come from the Arabic expression ḥasyu al-tha‘lab, "fox testicles", but it appears more likely the name comes directly from the Arabic name saḥlab. Scientific names Common names Acalypha hispida Burm. Calif. Acad. Several species are listed as threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1: 108. The origin of the common name remains a mystery. [24], Many issues remain in Erythranthe taxonomy. [6] Multiple studies of chloroplast DNA and two regions of nuclear rDNA[7] suggest that the genera Phryma, Berendtiella, Hemichaena, Leucocarpus, Microcarpeae, Peplidium, Glossostigma, and Elacholoma are all derived from within Mimulus and would need to be rearranged. The name "monkey flower" comes from the physical appearance of the flowers or from the name mimulus, stemming from a root word meaning "mimic." The stem of Erythranthe can be either smooth or hairy, and this is known in a few species to be a trait determined by a simple allelic difference. Common Name: Scarlet monkey flower: Scientific Name: Mimulus cardinalis: Family Name: Scrophulariaceae any of various plants belonging to the genus Mimulus, of the figwort family, as M. cardinalis(scarlet monkey flower), having spotted flowers that resemble a face. Each flower is attached by a pedicel. [39] This approximate ratio of insect vs hummingbird pollination holds true for the rest of the genus. Monkey Orchid Scientific Name : Dracula saulii This #orchid resembles a monkey’s face and hence the name. Both overall plant size and corolla size vary greatly throughout the genus. Annual Flowers Image Gallery [56][57], Erythranthe species tend to concentrate sodium chloride and other salts absorbed from the soils in which they grow in their leaves and stem tissues. in Illinois are either yellow-flowered or blue- to pink-flowered. Chromosomal issues may affect the classification of some species: E. corallina, E. guttata, E. nasuta, E. tilingii, and E. A large number of the Erythranthe species grow in moist to wet soils with some growing even in shallow water. [12][13] The fruit is a two-valved capsule 1 cm (0.4 in) long, containing many seeds. [18] At least E. lewisii is known to possess "flypaper-type" traps and is apparently protocarnivorous, supplementing its nutrients with small insects. The similarity in appearance to testes naturally accounts for salep being considered an aphrodisiac. [2][4][5], Removal of Mimulus from family Scrophulariaceae has been supported by studies of chloroplast DNA first published in the mid-1990s. [16] They are called monkey-flowers because some species have flowers shaped like a monkey's face. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. Although it is fully interfertile with its sister species E. cardinalis, the two do not interbreed in the wild, a difference ascribed primarily to pollinator differences; E. cardinalis is pollinated by hummingbirds, especially Calypte anna and Selasphorus rufus. "Rosaceae" thus means "the Rose Family ". Yellow Giant Hyssop. Mimulus /ˈmɪmjuːləs/ is a plant genus in the family Phrymaceae, which was traditionally placed in family Scrophulariaceae. Scientific Name. Acalypha sanderi N. E. Br. [17] The widely used generic name, Latin mimus meaning "mimic actor", from the Greek mimos meaning "imitator" also alludes to the fancied monkey resemblance. Catarrhini comes from the latin for “hook nosed,” likely a reference to the closer, downward-pointed nostrils of these monkeys. Pollination is mostly by either bees or hummingbirds. Member species are usually annuals or herbaceous perennials. Red cat’s tail (Engl.) Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. [60], Erythranthe has been listed as one of the 38 plants that are used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[61] a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health. … Native Americans and early travelers in the American West used this plant as a salt substitute to season wild game. Those conspicuous bushes with the light-orange flowers you are seeing on hikes right now are a species of Monkey Flower known as Sticky Monkey flower or Bush Monkey Flower. Phrymaceae. [4][46] Members of this genus are found in eastern Asia; several species of which have a high degree of similarity with some of the species found in North and South America. This is in contrast to Platyrrhini, which comes from the Latin word for “broad nosed,” a reference to the more flattened nostrils of this class of monkey. In 1885, American botanist Edward Lee Greene classified Erythranthe as a section of Mimulus while adding E. lewisii and E. [34], Before recognition of E. cinnabarina as a species, E. lewisii was interpreted to be the sister of E. cardinalis. It is an annual herb that blooms from April–June with a preference for shady and moist dense habitats. Sticky Monkey flower is normally 3-4 feet tall and cold tolerant to … Purple Giant Hyssop. [4], Erythranthe guttata is pollinated by bees, such as Bombus impatiens. The stem may be erect or recumbent. Most common garden plants, shrubs and trees, and broad-leafed flowering plants such as magnolias and roses are dicots. Species Epithet: speciosa. E. lewisii is pollinated by bees, primarily Bombus and Osmia, which feed on its nectar and transfer its pollen. Sometimes dwarfed, it may be hairless or have some hairs. Scientific names or Binomial Nomenclature is a scientific process wherein entities such as plants, animals, living entities are named and they are derived from Latin. Red-hot cat tail (Engl.) Lewis’s Monkeyflower (Mimulus lewisii)By Walter Fertig. The pests these genera are susceptible to include: gall midges, golden mealybugs, thrips, and seed bugs. [4], Erythranthe guttata is the most widespread of the genus Erythranthe and its characteristics are fairly representative of the genus. They are not very drought resistant, but many of the species now classified as Diplacus are. However, according to Cancer Research UK, "there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer". Leaves are opposite, round to oval, usually coarsely and irregularly toothed or lobed. It has disproportionately large, 20 to 40 mm long, tubular flowers. The perennials and annuals differ as groups from each other by an inversion sequence on chromosome 8. [29], Attempts at crossing species, whether from different sections or within the same section, of Erythranthe are not always successful. E. guttata is highly complex, with many variations apparently reflecting differences in geographic environment and elevation. [41][42] Erythranthe nasuta evolved from E. guttata in central California between 200,000 and 500,000 years ago and since then has become primarily a self-pollinator. [3] Several are cultivated as ornamental garden plants. Mimulus remains as a small genus of eastern North America and the Southern Hemisphere. [36][37] E. erubescens is mostly pollinated by Bombus balteatus, B. centralis, B. flavifrons, and B. Member species are widely cultivated and are subject to several pests and diseases. [38], E. eastwoodiae, E. nelsonii, E. rupestris, and E. verbenacea are also pollinated by hummingbirds. [3] Other characteristics of species can vary widely, especially between the sections,[4] and even within some sections. The older name of the genus mimulus comes from the ancient Greek word mimo which means ‘monkey’, or the Latin word mimus which means ‘actor, mimic’ – looking from the front of the plant its flower could resemble a monkey’s face or the mask used by an actor in a classical play. Mimulus ringens var. The #flower is white on the inside with a brown band on the outside. Erythranthe guttatais a model organismfor biological studies, and in that … [55] Because of their wide range and many variations, the most important are those derived from E. gutatta and E. These four species as well as E. cardinalis and E. nelsonii produce bisexual flowers and are self-compatible. [6] Flowers are red, pink, purple, or yellow, often in various combinations and shades of those colors. The entire plant is edible, but reported to be very salty and bitter unless well cooked. The juice from the leaves was used as a poultice for mild skin irritations and burns. In the latter group, there are only two species: Mimulus ringens (Monkey Flower) and Mimulus alatus (Winged Monkey Flower). [45] Genus members are also found in Baja California, Alaska, British Columbia, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and to a lesser extent the midwestern states, northeastern states, Canada, and Latin America. [33] E. cuprea alone has at least 10 cultivars and hybrids. [15], The derivation of Erythranthe is from Greek ἐρυθρός ("erythros"), red, with ἄνθος ("anthos"), flower. Blades are 0.5–2.5 cm (0.2–1.0 in) long. About Bush Monkey Flower (Mimulus aurantiacus) 52 Nurseries Carry This Plant Add to My Plant List The bush monkey-flower or sticky monkey-flower is a flowering perennial plant that grows in a subshrub form, native to southwestern North America from southwestern Oregon south through most of California and into Baja, Mexico. The upper lip usually has two lobes; the lower, three. "Aceae" is Latin for "a family" or "a group". [30][31], Charles Darwin's 1876 study of inbreeding depression and self-fertility in South American species was a progenitor for the study of Erythranthe biology. [52][54], In horticulture, several species, cultivars and hybrids are used. Diplacus aurantiacus, the sticky monkey-flower or orange bush monkey-flower, is a flowering plant that grows in a subshrub form, native to southwestern North America from southwestern Oregon south through most of California.It is a member of the lopseed family, Phrymaceae.It was formerly known as Mimulus aurantiacus. [35][40] E. cardinalis and its sister species E. cinnabarina likely evolved via allopatric speciation. [4][35] It was previously reported that evidence strongly linking pollination preference to color differences between the species, but this has been disproven. In the 2012 restructuring of Mimulus by Barker, et al., based largely upon DNA evidence, seven species were left in Mimulus, 111 placed into Erythranthe (species with axile placentation and long pedicels), 46 placed into Diplacus (species with parietal placentation and sessile flowers), two placed in Uvedalia, and one each placed in Elacholoma, Mimetanthe, and Thyridia. Actaea pachypoda. parishii. Sierra monkey flower: Sierra Monkey Flower: Description/Order: Diplacus: aurantiacus: australis: Ramona: Narrow Leaf Southern Monkey Flower: Description/Order: Diplacus: aurantiacus: lompocensis: Vandenberg Monkey Flower: Lompoc Monkey Flower: Description/Order: Diplacus: calycinus: Rock Monkey Flower: Description/Order: Diplacus: clevelandii: Clevelands monkey flower: Description/Order Corollas are deciduous, relatively large (tube-throat 8–42 mm (0.3–1.7 in) long), and strongly red to purplish, magentarose, pink, or white, rarely yellow. ", "Speciation by genome duplication: Repeated origins and genomic composition of the recently formed allopolyploid species. Erythranthe was originally described as a separate genus, then generally regarded as a section within the genus Mimulus, and recently returned to generic rank. Leaves can be oblong, elliptical, or oval, with small tooths. The sticky monkey-flower (Mimulus aurantiacus), or bush monkey-flower, grows in the scrub and chaparral from Mendocino to Baja. Plant Type: Tree. The orchid genus Dracula, abbreviated as Drac in horticultural trade, consists of 118 species native to Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. The bright yellow flowers are born on a raceme, most often with five or more flowers. [4] In the 2012 restructuring of Mimulus by Barker et al., based largely upon DNA evidence, seven species were left in Mimulus as strictly defined; Erythranthe was greatly enlarged to include 111 species, based upon axile placentation and long pedicels,[3] 46 placed into Diplacus (species with parietal placentation and sessile flowers),[3] two placed in Uvedalia, and one each placed in Elacholoma, Mimetanthe, and Thyridia. [19] Variations in color largely reflect concentrations of anthocyanins. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Monkey tail (Engl.) Inbreeding reduces flower quantity and size and pollen quality and quantity. Erythranthe was originally described as a separate genus, then generally regarded as a section within the genus Mimulus , and recently returned to generic rank. 23,34 The specific name aurantiacus is a … Mimulus ringens L. – Allegheny monkeyflower. It is now clear that E. cinnabarina and E. cardinalis are sister species and that E. lewisii and E. erubescens are sister species. vosnesenskii. Pollination changes are highly affected by changes in flower morphology. [45][51] Species are found at elevations from oceanside to high mountains as well as a wide variety of climates, though most prefer wet areas such as riverbanks. Molecular data show Erythranthe and Diplacus to be distinct evolutionary lines that are distinct from Mimulus as strictly defined. [52] Diseases they are susceptible to include: crown gall, aster yellows phytoplasma, impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), leaf spots, powdery mildew — especially Erysiphe brunneopunctata and Before the 2012 restructuring, two large groups of species had long been recognized in the genus Mimulus as it was traditionally defined, with the largest group of species in western North America, and a second group with center of diversity in Australia. Subordinate Taxa. Mimulus species prefer wet or moist areas and are not drought resistant. Plants with dark red flowers are occasional encountered, as are plants with orange to orange-pink, flowers. Acalypha sanderi K. Schum. [58] Leaves can be used in salads and soups; flowers taste best before blooming. Diplacus aurantiacus, Sticky Monkey flower is the coastal form of Mimulus aurantiacus, a perennial with 1" orange flowers that likes partial shade if planted in the interior sun if it is along the coast. 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