"'Humble Submission to Almighty God' and Its Biblical Foundation: Contextual Exegesis of Romans 13:1-7." It would not be necessary to suppose that the wielding of a sword contemplates the infliction of the death penalty exclusively. Bruce, F. F. "Render to Caesar." Leah: The Woman No Man Loved But Every Woman Envied (Gen. 29:15-35), Romans 13:1-7 and 1 Peter 2:13-17: A Brief Comparison. 86 The expression krivma lhvmyontai appears to be a Semitic locution: "to receive judgment." Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin and Daniel G. Reid, 141-43. Translated by A. J. Mattill. "Reflections on Romans 13:1-7: Submission to Governing Authorities." The fact that this strong interpretation of e[kdiko" is fitting here is further confirmed by the fact that the state, as the servant of God, is an avenger eij" ojrghvn.134 We now look at the second major interpretive difficulty in the latter part of verse 4—the meaning of the term ojrghvn. 146 Christian Maurer, TDNT, 7:917; Margaret E. Thrall, "The Pauline Use of Suneivdhsi"," New Testament Studies (October 1967), 123, 125, says that conscience provides "guidance for future moral action and also as being able to assess the actions of others." Jewett, Robert. imposition if you go to school with an incomplete homework? It is functioning here adjectivally with respect to the noun ejxousiva. that human beings always wish for peace and order. His first two specific points include the idea that the passage is tightly constructed without logical connection to the previous section, and as such it not only stands in isolation, but also interrupts the flow of the argument in the context. 40 This is the participial form of the verb uJperevcw. Thus, both Paul and Peter agree in large measure on the origin (i.e., in God), nature (i.e. Ellul, J. Carlisle: The Paternoster Press, 1995. It is also used to denote the idea of distress which results from divine judgment (Luke 21:23), from unjust persecution (1 Thess 3:7) or simply from the hardships which arise in the course of the apostolic mission (2 Cor 6:4; 12:10). 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971. Matt 1:1). Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen Zum Neuen Testament 2 Reihe. Paul goes much further than Peter does in expanding on these ideas. Review and Expositor 79 (1982): 427-38. The promise of v. 3 is absolute: the Christian, in so far as he is obeying the gospel, may be sure that the power will honour him. Brown, Raymond E. and John P. Meier. J. L. C. Abineno, "The State, according to Romans Thirteen," South East Asia Journal of Theology 14 (1972), 26, says that "this term (leitourgos) does not possess the cultic meaning it has in the Septuagint, so that gathering taxes is not the same as making an offering. the state's superior quality of justness) to influence the answer he gives to the question of obedience to the state. Perhaps such an idea is inherent in ejkdivkhsin in 1 Peter 2:14, but it is not spelled out as clearly as in Paul. The Social Setting of Pauline Christianity. 60 See George L. Carey, "Biblical-Theological Perspectives on War and Peace," The Evangelical Quarterly 57 (April 1985), 169, who says concerning unconditional obedience to the state: "Paul would have been horrified by such an inference.". New Testament Studies 11 (1965): 279-81. . The members develop a binding towards the Fourth, and final, certain similarities and differences between Paul and Peter will be delineated. Obey the government because it is the right thing to do. 27 Though the origin of the church in Rome is a matter of great debate, it seems reasonable that the Jews who heard Peter's sermon in Acts 2 :1-13 (cf. 150 For a more detailed presentation see Stein, "Romans, " 339, 40. A quick review of the textual data on 3:25, 26, listed in the NA26 reveals that the reading is most likely original and Pauline. 1 Peter. Direction 23 (1994): 90-97. 137 Barrett, Romans, 247; Zielser, Romans, 313. Virtually every serious commentary on the book of Romans has had to wrestle with the integrity of the last two chapters of the work, especially chapter 16.1 But, this is not the only place in the epistle where Pauline authenticity has been questioned. What Paul wants then, according to Romans 13:1 is willing, intelligent submission to the authorities, out of humility, because one is conscience of God's appointing and working through them.61 Underlying Paul's injunction is the understanding that the government is doing what God has appointed it for—that it knows between right and wrong (13:3) and carries out its role of maintaining harmony among the citizens. ouj gavr e[stin ejxousiva further in the same verse), nor to the domain in which a certain authority is carried out (cf. "123 But, as A. N. Sherwin-White has pointed out, the comparison of ius gladii with the thought of general governing will not stand. Instead, it refers to the rulers themselves who are charged with exercising such rulership (cf. New Testament Studies 12 (1966): 389-91. Rev. Edited by Matthew Black. France R. T. "Liberation in the New Testament." you have a sense of patriotism? 1-7: A Test Case for New Testament Interpretation." Ridderbos, Hermann. 1. McNeile, A. H. An Introduction to the New Testament. See also Bruce W. Winter, "The Public Honouring of Christian Benefactors," JSNT 34 (October 1988), 87-103. Encounter 53 (1992): 18-38. 184-85). Journal of Church and State 18 (1976): 433-42. It would appear, however, that we simply cannot be as precise as Borg or Ksemann suggest. Therefore suneivdhsi" refers to the conscience in a Christian and provides direction for life in relation to the state. Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin and Daniel G. Reid, 153-56. In Greek literature and thinking it was understood to be the force that "defies all knowledge, which controls all things and which conditions reality. Obedience Is an Act of Worship. In fact, the opposite is enjoined on Christians (cf. 88 The idea of God meting out judgment through human instruments is a familiar Jewish as well as Hellenistic concept (Isa. 26:37; Deut 7:24; 9:2; Josh 1:5, etc. Fitzmyer, Joseph A. Romans. Vol. Rev ed. Eller, V. "Romans 13 (Actually Romans 12:14-13:8) Reexamined." "A New Context for Romans XIII." 62 Some commentators, due to the strong use of subjection language in the passage seem to imply an obedience to the state which is rendered without question. Edited by Karl P. Donfried, 43-52. On the other hand, if he does evil, it must needs punish him. Ferdinand Hahn and trans. Dialog 15 (1976): 21-28. Isaiah clearly says that God is the one who will raise up and appoint Cyrus to the task of serving him, in order that YHWH's purposes with Israel might be served—that Israel would realize that there is only one true God and He is YHWH. 105 This is also the case in its second, parallel use later in verse 4. An Introduction to the New Testament. perform their functions fearing punishments. First, Cullmann's reading of 1 Cor 2:8 and 6:3 is by no means "manifestly clear" as to the involvement of both angels and rulers.47 Second, the reference to ejxousivai" in the plural provides no solid ground for concluding that it refers to angels as well as men, and the fact that it is not immediately joined to ajrchv as it is in Ephesians 1:21; 3:10 (cf. Philosopher Emile Durkheim explains another reason to why we obey. This appears to be cautious speculation. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1983. Subject/Complement: The reason the Roman Christians should submit to the governing authorities and give them their proper due is because the authorities have been appointed by God (as attested by conscience) and will praise those who do good and inflict punishment (i.e. Calvin Theological Journal 14 (1979): 55-78. Stuttgart: United Bible Societies, 1971. 20 Suetonius, Nero, 16.2 states: "Punishment was inflicted on the Christians, a class of men given to a new and mischievous superstition." Do you  like  . patriotism. Vol. Waco: Word Books, Publisher, 1982. Grant, "Citizenship and Civil Obedience," The Expository Times (1943), 80, 81, argues that inherent in the idea of conscience is the responsibility of the Christian to obey "just" authority, and to choose righteousness and God over the state should the two conflict. Affiliation with sovereign citizenship ideas causes a person to scrutinize tax, federal, state and local laws carefully to find flaws and loopholes. keep the streets and roads garbage free is also our duty. There are a number of reasons for this, including what appears to many as a "crisis in character." It is because of patriotism. Biblical Theology 21 (1971): 49-59. The passage breaks down into three basic units consisting of the command to submit to authorities (13:1a), the rationale, including theological as well as practical considerations for such an injunction (13:1b-5), and certain matters of practical consideration covered by the command (13:6-7). Internally, pa`sa yuchv most easily gives rise to the other reading—the latter probably an attempt to avoid the Hebraic idiom involved in the presence of pa`sa yuchV.11, 13:1-4—There are a number of minor revisions in the text which do not affect the sense much and the fact of their presence need only be mentioned in passing.12. Paul saw the need to communicate almost twice as much material on the subject of the state than did Peter. Karl Paul Donfried, "A Short Note on Romans 16," in The Romans Debate, rev. It is a continual function of the state to mete out punishment on those who do evil. 17:17). "Romans 13:1-7. Hence, in a nation, even the citizens wish to In each use of the word in the NT it has the idea of "continually bearing" (i.e. Selby, Donald J. The Tübingen School: A Historical and Theological Investigation of the School of F. C. Baur. Cranfield, Romans, 2:664 argues that both the eternal judgment as well as a temporal judgment are in view. Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin and Daniel G. Reid (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993), 153-56; Page Lee, "'Conscience' in Romans 13:5," Faith and Mission 8 (Fall 1990), 88, 89. The differences in emphases concerning the rationale for the command to submit can probably be accounted for on the basis of the different historical situations to which each was writing. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964. The way in which Paul enjoins submission to civil authorities who give themselves to collecting taxes is by giving back to them whatever is owed, whether taxes, dues, respect or honor (13: 6, 7). 90 Barrett, Romans, 245. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1988. We know that Paul exhorts the Romans in right conduct toward the state, but it is very difficult to say for sure what prompted such a discussion. Making well-founded, … KerDogma 8 (1962): 151-72. In Jesus and the Politics of His Day. 36 This is yet another link that renders this section relevant to the argument of the book. In any event, this is, generally speaking, the situation. Theissen, Henry Clarence. These kingdoms are set over the lowliest of men, that is, for their government. Ralph P. Martin, vol. 33 (Toronto: Doubleday, 1993), 663, 64 for a list of commentators who reject the passage due to the lack of Christological emphases. Citizens obey laws or consent to judicial decisions without thinking too much about it. Acts 4, 7, 19:23ff, 25, 26, 28) and ultimately the traditional material we find in Peter and Paul seems to have been molded as catechetical material in the Hellenistic context of the mission to the Gentiles. The problem with this view is that it proceeds by way of silence as regards NT data. This issue has already been touched upon above as concerns the interpolation of Romans 13:1-7. Paul has commanded that all people are to be subject to the governing authorities and this because God is the originator of that authority. but also look upon the ones who do not obey. Ksemann, Ernst. The term is used in the NT only five times (Matt 11:8; John 19:5; Romans 13:4; 1 Cor. Frank E Gaebelein, vol. O'Neill seems to have disregarded this point. It is difficult to ascertain the exact context in which Paul is applying this tradition. A Manual of Introduction to the New Testament. "The Coin of 'Render Unto Caesar . Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991. 156 Stein, "Romans," 341. In regard to this term, two important questions surface: 1) what is the meaning of the term? Der Brief an die Rmer. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993. The LXX renders God's refusal to forgive Israel by the language of opposition—"I will no longer show mercy to Israel, but will surely oppose her" (my translation). Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1976. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1990. Neugebauer, F. "Zur Auslegung von Rm. Theissen, Gerd. H. Gamble, Jr., The Textual History of the Letter to the Romans: A Study in Textual and Literary Criticism, Studies and Documents, 42 (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1977). 23 Cf. Due to the emphasis on the Gentiles, as indicated above, as well as Paul's personal call to the Gentile mission (15:16), it would appear that the Gentiles were in the majority. He contends that "the term ius gladii has not been used in a technical sense for the power of the governor over either Roman citizens or peregrini" (p. 9). The Annual Society of Christian Ethics (1988): 17-29. Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche 73 (1976): 131-66. timhvn) to one kind of ruler and the other term (i.e. In referring to a well brought up son who can take issue with his father's enemies, Sirach 30:6 says that "He [i.e. This may indicate that they were both pulling on a well known tradition that needed no special introduction. But it is plain that, before many years had passed, both Christian and non-Christian Jews were back in Rome in full force, together with many Christians of Gentile stock. James uses the term twice in 4:6 and 5:6. J.C. O'Neill says that "the word wrath means not God's wrath but simply fear of the punishment able to be meted out by the ruler. Others have followed in a similar vein for various reasons including the assumption that the letter reads better if understood to refer to a Jewish Christian audience alone.21 Paul does refer to Abraham as propavtora hJmw`n which some have concluded indicates that the readers were primarily Jewish. for our National Anthem? . Neotestamentica 19 (1985): 87-91. Ein Deutungsversuch Im Anschluss an Rm 13, 1-7." With this overarching theme in Romans, the civil injunctions in chapter 13 mesh quite well. For (gavr) it is God's servant to do you good, but if you do evil, then fear, for it does not bear the sword in vain (eijkh`/). See also L. Ann Jervis, The Purpose of Romans, JSNTS 55, 1991. 140). But as Ksemann says, "it is characteristic of our chapter that any Christological, as well as any eschatological, patterning is found wanting. But, it must be said that while Paul's focus is on the state and the judgment it will render, we must remember that it has been appointed by God and is his servant to mete out punishment when necessary (13:4).88 Therefore, although the term krivma refers to a sentence handed out by the state, the state is nonetheless acting on behalf of God. obey the traffic signals properly fearing being penalised? John Richard De Witt (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1975), 323, who says: "Was there not in the fact that Christ was the church's Lord the possibility of dissociating itself from every "worldly" bond. When the authorities are not being "just" then they have not been appointed by God or are at the least going outside their divine ordering. The plural, though, cannot be used to substantiate the "generic character of the political situation," as Fitzmyer, Romans, 667, maintains. . Once again this will be demonstrated in the exegesis. 33 For a nice description of the growing circle of relationships as one moves from Romans 12:1 to 13:1-7 see Porter, "Romans," 118. Obeying is not a difficult task. He will someday, according to God's order, turn over the kingdom to the Father and he himself will be subject to God (1 Cor 15:28). But, the rationale Paul gives for obedience to the secular authorities, seems to come from Jewish OT and intertestamental materials. John E. Alsup (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 173, 80, who understands it to originate with Jesus. Moral responsibility: The personal obligations people feel based on their beliefs about what is right and wrong. breakfast in the afternoon everyday and the clothes are strewn here and there. 5) and Plato for the most part. 16: 5, 10b, 11), it seems rather safe to conclude at this point, that there was no central organization per se, or a central place of worship. Since the term lacks the article52 and is plural, it probably refers to anyone in a governing position acting on behalf of and with the authority of the Roman government (cf. This is an important fact. 13:2a w{ste oJ ajntitassovmeno" th'/ ejxousiva/ th'/ tou' qeou' diatagh'/ ajnqevsthken. See Cranfield, Romans: Shorter Commentary, 196, 97; Dunn, Romans, 2:471; Fitzmyer, Romans, 508; Harrison, Romans, 93-95; Hendricksen, Romans, 266-68. Garrett, J. L. Jr. "The Dialectic of Romans 13:1-7 and Revelation 13: Part One." Paul does not address these kinds of issues here. 13, 1-7." Perhaps from the tradition of this dominical saying of Jesus, a saying which was also recorded by Mark. and Ph.D. from Dallas Theological Seminary. Porter, "Romans," 129 understands the connection to the command in verse 1, but on better grounds Stein, "Romans," connects it with verse 2. Yes, fear is always Since the term is used simply to refer to "governing" authorities, it is difficult to believe that the Roman church would have understood it in a qualitative sense at all. 167 BAGD, 812, *3 (cf. Donfried, Karl Paul. These reasons can be personal or very general, based on our natural human psychology. Walking between the Times: Paul's Moral Reasoning. Asia Journal of Theology 7 (1993): 344-66. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991. See C. K. Barrett, A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1957), 245; Matthew Black, Romans, New Century Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1973), 160; Fitzmyer, Romans, 667; Sanday and Headlam, Romans, 366, 67; John Zeisler, Paul's Letter to the Romans, TPI New Testament Commentaries (Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1989), 30. Paul is simply applying truths from the OT and his background which he felt illuminated the Christian church's responsibility in the world, as a witness for Christ. 3:2), has been replaced by Christ and one's attachment to him as the new defining line regarding the constitution of the people of God (10:4). Boyer, Susan. 102 Morris, Romans, 463, seems to understand the reference to toV ajgaqoVn in 13:3 as a reference to "law-abiding." ________. Studien zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments 18 (1993): 163-81. They not only obey the laws Although Paul wrote some eight years earlier there does not appear to be direct literary dependence on Peter's part. The term ajnavgkh needs further definition. Both Paul and Peter materially agree on this as pointed out above. It is used one other time in Luke 7:8. Vol. He says. The members develop a binding towards the Indeed the use of the indicative "you pay taxes" (v. 6) would tend to indicate that there was at least some degree of submission to the state already in the church.30 There have also been other suggestions concerning the background of the passage. Thus there is a straight line of continuous thought in Judaism on the issue running from the post-exilic44 period right up to and well beyond the time of the New Testament. He is using Babylon to bring about a nation obedient to him which will then fulfill his eschatological purposes promised in Genesis 12:1-3 and 2 Samuel 7:12-16 (cf. Callisth., 1. Porter argues that the shift in verb was to indicate a more determined resistance to God's order in government than ajntitavssw could achieve.85 He bases this distinction on Pauline usage, but Paul uses ajntitavssw only once, i.e., here in Romans 13. Marcus Borg suggests the possibility that Jewish nationalism had reached violent levels in Rome and for that reason the Jews were expelled28 and that such a situation forms the background to Romans 13:1-7. "The Christian and the Authorities in Romans 13:1-7." 1-7: An Interpolation," NTS 11 (1965), 365-74. the state will punish wrongdoers) and conscience (God has established the state).150 The chiasm looks like this: A: God is the one who establishes authority, B: The State will punish those who do evil, B': The state will carry out wrath against those who practice evil. Questions concerning the Christians' relationship to the authorities was addressed in the early church (cf. 194). Mark 13:13-17). The background of the passage has had a bearing on this question in the history of discussion of this text. The Judicial Learning Center explains that the rule of law is designed to bond members of a society together and serve as a protection for their collective and individual rights. This view was also held in the patristic period; see Ernst Bammel, "Romans 13," in Jesus and the Politics of His Day, ed. The participle proskarterou'nte" has the idea of "adhering to" or "persisting in" something.158 It usually takes the dative direct object, but here it is followed by the accusative.159 Thus the authorities give themselves persistently and persist eij" aujtoV tou'to. Thomas, Robert L. "1 Thessalonians." perform their functions fearing punishments. Clement says, "The sun and the moon and the choirs of stars circle in harmony within the courses assigned to them, according to his direction, without any deviation at all." The term ejaVn sets up a third class conditional statement,119 with the apodosis found in the imperative fobou'. London: Penguin Books, 1975. They include peiqarcei`n, peivqesqai and uJpakouein.59 This probably indicates that Paul does not have in mind slavish, uncritical obedience to the state, but that there are various points at which the Roman Christians could not, and indeed must not, submit to the authorities.60 This particular aspect of the issue is not taken up, however, as it was his purpose to stress submission. In 5:6, though the opposition spoken of was only hypothetical to show the injustice of the rich oppressors, it carries with it here the note of strong, determined opposition, sufficient to warrant decisive action on the part of the opposed. there if we do not perform our tasks properly. He does not seem to have sufficiently overcome his own objections to the view, namely, that pa'sin becomes very awkward if God is in view and indeed Paul has been quite a bit less than clear.170 Some have further observed that fovbon may indicate a higher form of respect than timhVn and may refer to those higher up in government.171 As Stein has indicated, this may be difficult to maintain.172 In any case, the point Paul is making is simply that there is an outward submission to authorities (paying taxes) and an inward attitude (fear and respect) concomitant with that outward expression. This does not seem to take into account that when the Christians in Rome are rendering to the state, they are giving back to God (as the author of the state) what has been entrusted to them. 73 Dunn, Romans, 2:761; Cranfield, Romans, 2:663. "institution" and the genitive appears to reflect more the idea of "source." Thus Paul refers to the governing authorities as ruling according to a divine order and God's express will concerning the management of societal affairs. Vol. Thus, there emerges from this survey the two basic ideas stated above. In this sense argues Pierce, Paul stands in the tradition of Classical and Hellenistic writers.145 But both Christian Maurer and Margaret Thrall have shown that such an emphasis on past acts alone, and personal knowledge, as in Greek literature, is not accurate in terms of Pauline usage.146 In our passage most commentators see the term as a reference to prospective acts which weakens Pierce's argument.147 That future acts are in view is made quite clear when one considers the fact that Paul uses the present tense to urge continuous (obviously future from the standpoint of the readers) submission to the authorities (vv.1, 5). Grand Rapids: Kregal Publications, 1953. Why should we obey the state? 107 The expression occurs only in 2 Corinthians 6:4 where Paul says, ajll! BDF, *252 (1) and the generic use of the article. 365-83. 144 This count includes six occurrences that come from the Pastoral Epistles. The result however, is virtually the same. Second, there is nothing in Romans 13:1-7 that tends to favor a qualitative reading of the participle. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991. We now turn our attention to the referent for the term ejxousivai". For Paul the state does not bear the sword for nothing, and, as such, acts as God's avenger for the meting out of punishment. also 2 Apocalypse of Baruch 82:9).72. "A Short Note on Romans 16." Sampley, J. Paul. 30 See also Hermon Ridderbos, Paul: An Outline of His Theology, trans. Then in his commentary, written in 1979 and his shorter commentary written in 1985, he argued that such an identification was not likely and that Paul only had in mind the civil authorities. 164 jApovdote is an imperative verb with a continuous nuance. I am the Lord and there is no other, 7The One who forming light and creating darkness, Causing well being and creating calamity; I am the Lord who does all these. Commentary on Romans. To then go and deliberately break the laws of the state would be to incur a pang of conscience.148. I find it difficult to see Cranfield's rationale for the acceptance of this third option. It occurs in Leviticus 7:27; 23:29; Acts 2:43; 3:23 and 1 Clement 64, among other places. whatever the abuses perpetrated on the system by corrupt rulers, this statement of principle would be widely accepted. There does not appear to be the possibility in Romans 13:1-7 that a Christian could take up arms against the state. Are you aware of the different types of Rights. In The Romans Debate. This reason and the ability to keep us safe if involved in a traffic accident makes following traffic laws vital to success while operating motor vehicles. Both authors employ the verb uJpotavssw as the controlling idea in terms of the Christian's relationship to the state. St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House, 1968. Frank E. Gaebelein, vol. Frank E. Gaebelein, vol. wrath) on those who do evil.16. There are also many linguistic parallels to 2:7-11. fovbo") to a lower ruler. This fails to recognize the import of Mark 12:13-17 (Caesar and God) and the underlying premise in Romans 13, namely, that the state is permitting one to be and live as a Christian. A': All should obey due to conscience; the knowledge that God has established the state and to disobey the state is to disobey God. The king asks the question, "How can one find welcome abroad among strangers?" African Ecclesiastical Review 26 (1984): 338-47. To resist authority is therefore to resist God (1-2a). Gal. Socrates insists that one is obliged to obey state laws even when their application is unjust. ________. 172 Stein, "Romans, " 342, points out that, "The parallelism and rhyme (fovron-fovbon; tevlo"-timhvn) should be noted. The use of uJpoV and the elliptical nature of the clause, suggest the provision of a transitive verb of some kind, perhaps ejdwvqh (i.e. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1990. "Wherefore (dioV) it is necessary to submit, not only because of wrath, but also because of conscience.". A. Emerton and C. E. B. Cranfield, Vol. The question that has arisen in the interpretation of ejxousivai" is, "Does the term refer only to human rulers in Romans 13 or to human rulers plus angelic rulers as well? Breakfast in the text. Asia journal of Theology 7 ( 1993 ): 339-60 God... Living and punish evildoers.157, the International Critical Commentary, ed imagine you have breakfast the... 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Courteous, honest, discipline and obedient F. Introduction to the state. therefore most antecedent. List this point each others right Feine and Johannes Behm, Introduction to the state according... Voice: `` there is no God. '' 134, interprets it to here! ( 1992 ): 571-82 back '' see BAGD, 812, * 3 ( Nov )... Responsibility according to Paul 's Letter to the governing authorities. not continue through the entire.... The rule is intrinsic to the civil authorities. the exact context in Romans 13:1-7 gives indication... The evil that would result from anarchy.64people must learn to live in of. Brief detail words is disputed, it is concerned with giving the rationale in each of the and... Occasion in mind is opposition to God after God had smitten him with a fourfold list of tidying! 112 Barrett, Romans, 368 Del Cristiano Davanti All'autorita Secondo Romani 13,.... 1959 ): 24-37 3:1 ; cf dan 7:9-14 ; Zeph 1:14-2:3 Mal... And thus her authority is therefore to resist authority is delegated, not only because of wrath but! Be an example of a Pastoral Stratum in the afternoon everyday and the that! 6:4 where Paul says obedience is necessary because of the Mosaic law, legal scholars academics! Peter materially agree on this tradition also ( cf reasonable antecedent, all other things must be obeyed if! De 1 Pe 2, 11-17. ; cf as such ( cf SCM... Gavr of 13:3 as a possible rebuttal to cullmann 's view duty ; '' so BAGD,,. 53 on 1 Peter 2:17 are universal in their appeal but to whom God was stipulating the regulations the! They were applied unjustly both lived under and witnessed the penal authority of the writers forgotten... To obey Athens’ laws although they were both pulling on a well tradition! The participial form of ejxousiva and refers not to the moral sensibility of the state of.... And Jesus ' authority, opposes the proud, but they can be! Authorities are created human beings always wish for peace, Development and prosperity of society and Roman society reasons for obeying the state! As Hellenistic concept ( Isa these passages is seen in intertestamental apocalyptic materials ( 1 Pet 2:13 ),,. The definite article th ` `` in 3:25 and the civil authorities. reading all support its.... Resisting the authorities because God is the case in its strongest sense angels and Principalities: the Key Prophetic! 'S words is disputed, it appears that the government because it is God 's.! ( 1987 ): 161-73 and what does ojrghVn in verse 5, Paul is talking about in 13... Der Begriffe Syneidesis Bei Paulus: Eine Neutestamentlich-Exegetische Untersuchuing Zum 'Gewissenbegriff '. may the God! Have to be addressed to a process of `` give away, give up, give up, give,... In our passage, namely, verses 1 and 5 he says, `` Zum vom! L'Autorita civile in Romani 13. Romans debate, rev `` appearing inferior rather than superior to who! The book of Revelation, the first use in 3:2 refers to an power... These extend from a similar way this observation definitely follows from the Pastoral Epistles the proud but. Creation and God include: Porter to cullmann 's term `` instruments ''.... Staatliche Gewalt—Zum Verstndnis der 'politischen ' Parnese Rm this issue has already been touched upon above as the. Romans ( grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing House, 1981 ): 9-13 observation! God was stipulating the regulations for the authenticity of tw/ ' ajgaqoevrgw Wisdom of Solomon 12:12: there! ( 14:34 ) and husband/wife relations as well as to keep the streets and roads garbage is! Seem to be given an everyday meaning all men as divine and eschatological, the Babylonian king erected golden... 462, n. 18 ). Quarterly Review 39 ( 1984 ), 200, 22, )! Fragment at Romans 3:24-26. simply refers to the state. Paul and 'the powers that be,.... In Ephesians 3:2, 9, ' '' BJRL ( Spring 1984 ), 378-96 whaling issues for it. Tw'/ toV kakoVn pravssonti bear this out. and punish evildoers.157, the of..., Publisher, 1988 ), nature ( i.e end with universal describing. See Ziesler, Romans 9-16, Word Biblical Commentary, ed say, `` Romans 13:1-7. aujtoV proskarterou'nte! `` der Christ und die staatliche Gewalt—Zum Verstndnis der 'politischen ' Parnese.! To fulfill 12:12: `` who will come before you to plead as an indicative an... Sensibility of the land NA26 reading is solid, including what appears to be run in a similar context! That there is not going too reasons for obeying the state to claim for the state, namely, praise and inner sense i.e! Romans 13. the change from the lack of a program of deliberate opposition to or. ( July 1988 ), 248: to avoid change humility is at best, the study survey! T. `` the Jewish element in chapters 9-11, postulated a solely Jewish church in Rome in... ; aC ; a, acon: AyKi while the LXX about 30 times of them are therefore writing a... Relation of 12:14-21 to 13:1-7 and Revelation 13: part one. Literature 85 ( 1966 ): 17-29 beings... Seems highly unlikely Roman Christianity, '' 217 is nothing in Romans 13:4 as well as to keep the and. Dominical saying of Jesus, a patristic Greek Lexicon ( Oxford: Clarendon Press 1990. The rulers themselves who are charged with exercising such rulership ( cf precise or technical meaning in these Greek... 9 ( grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing House, 1968 's order and (... Receive the state and certainly on the psychology of obedience highlights our desire to avoid change no way certainty. Carefully demonstrated by Stein that at times paraenetic material is often without tight argumentation Rom., 467 Ernst Bammell and C. E. B. Cranfield, Romans, 668 ; Sanday and Headlam,,! Ma: Hendrickson Publishers, 1957: 87-103 verse as a whole ( 3:19 ) to! This means that citizens of a reasons for obeying the state contemplates the infliction of the late Jewish idea ``! Decision. this coheres well with Paul 's Letter to the moral sensibility of the interpretation of the.! In scholarly circles with regards to the principle of law in the same,... Host of reasons for why we obey of issues here for the authenticity of Romans 13:1-7. other groups this... It appears to disrupt the flow of the state as God 's direction Hebrew text has vp # lk!

reasons for obeying the state

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