By January 1959, the camp had a population of 506 detainees, of whom 127 were held in a secluded "closed camp". [294][296], A The name Kenya Land and Freedom Army is sometimes heard in connection with Mau Mau. The greater part of the wealth of the country is at present in our hands. "In my view, the British government's attempt to pin liability on Kenya for British colonial torture represents an intolerable abdication of responsibility," he said. On 3 March 1959, the camp commandant put this plan into action – as a result, 11 detainees were clubbed to death by guards. In October 1952 the British declared a state of emergency and began moving army reinforcements into Kenya. If so the outlook is grim. [48] An unintended consequence of colonial rule,[48] the squatters were targeted from 1918 onwards by a series of Resident Native Labourers Ordinances—criticised by at least some MPs[63]—which progressively curtailed squatter rights and subordinated native Kenyan farming to that of the settlers. [151], At first armed Harvard training aircraft were used, for direct ground support and also some camp interdiction. The firm says its clients suffered terribly in detention camps or at the hands of British-led soldiers. Most detainees confessed, and the system produced ever greater numbers of spies and informers within the camps, while others switched sides in a more open, official fashion, leaving detention behind to take an active role in interrogations, even sometimes administering beatings. VideoArchbishop and Chief Rabbi on losing a child. We must have no hatred towards one another. [231], A retaliatory massacre was immediately perpetrated by Kenyan security forces who were partially overseen by British commanders. But radical activists within the KAU set up a splinter group and organised a more militant kind of nationalism. The people executed belonged to the Kikuyu Home Guard — a loyalist militia recruited by the British to fight the guerrillas. Regarding decolonisation, the most common view is that Kenya's independence came about as a result of the British government's deciding that a continuance of colonial rule would entail a greater use of force than that which the British public would tolerate. [251] The remaining four test claimants are: Ndiku Mutua, who was castrated; Paulo Muoka Nzili, who was castrated; Jane Muthoni Mara, who was subjected to sexual assault that included having bottles filled with boiling water pushed up her vagina; and Wambugu Wa Nyingi, who survived the Hola massacre. [116] Through the summer of 1952, however, Colonial Secretary Oliver Lyttelton in London received a steady flow of reports from Acting Governor Henry Potter about the escalating seriousness of Mau Mau violence,[82] but it was not until the later part of 1953 that British politicians began to accept that the rebellion was going to take some time to deal with. In addition to search-and-destroy missions against Mau Mau fighter bands operating in the forests, the British also strategically resettled Kikuyu in villages. This tribe was moved backwards and forwards so as to secure for the Crown areas which could be granted to Europeans. These forced-labour camps provided a much needed source of labour to continue the colony's infrastructure development. [15][16] Suppressing the Mau Mau Uprising in the Kenyan colony cost Britain £55 million[17] and caused at least 11,000 deaths among the Mau Mau and other forces, with some estimates considerably higher. This group seeks to destroy the Kenyan Imperialists and install their own Islamic governance over not only the Kenyan Lands but the Ugandan and Ethiopian lands too. Electric shock was widely used, and so was fire. Akamba people say the name Mau Mau came from Ma Umau meaning 'Our Grandfathers'. In 2012, the UK government accepted that prisoners had suffered "torture and ill-treatment at the hands of the colonial administration". The term was first used during a pastoralists revolt against de-stocking that took place in 1938 led by Muindi Mbingu during which he urged the colonists to leave Kenya so that his people (the kamba) could live freely like the time of 'Our Grandfathers' (Twenda kwikala ta maau mau maitu, tuithye ngombe ta Maau mau maitu, nundu nthi ino ni ya maau mau maitu). Maathai also notes that the Home Guard were especially known to rape women. [236] Before the conference, it was anticipated by both native Kenyan and European leaders that Kenya was set for a European-dominated multi-racial government. [139] In May 1953, the decision was made to send General George Erskine to oversee the restoration of order in the colony. He said: "Everything that could happen did happen. The number of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis which is being disclosed in Prison and Detention Camps is causing some embarrassment. Not fo… the native Kenyan population of Nairobi. Some attention was paid to allegations of atrocities at the time, with questions asked in parliament about 11 Africans beaten to death in a British camp at Hola. One example was the Mau Mau raid on the "loyalist" village of Lari, where the majority of the men were away fighting with the British Home Guard. [177], —Memorandum to Commissioner of Prisons John 'Taxi' Lewis General Gatunga had previously been a respected and well read Christian teacher in his local Kikuyu community. Significant numbers of Italian soldiers captured during the East African Campaign were interned in camps in Kenya, where they were used in civil infrastructure projects. Special Branch there had a way of slowly electrocuting a Kuke—they'd rough up one for days. . [160][161], When the mass deportations of Kikuyu to the reserves began in 1953, Baring and Erskine ordered all Mau Mau suspects to be screened. [202] One provincial commissioner blamed child hunger on parents deliberately withholding food, saying the latter were aware of the "propaganda value of apparent malnutrition". First, the settler government in Kenya was, even before the insurgency, probably the most openly racist one in the British empire, with the settlers' violent prejudice attended by an uncompromising determination to retain their grip on power[120] and half-submerged fears that, as a tiny minority, they could be overwhelmed by the indigenous population. When beginning a list in Kikuyu, you say, "maũndũ ni mau", "the main issues are...", and hold up three fingers to introduce them. From the health point of view, I regard villagisation as being exceedingly dangerous and we are already starting to reap the benefits. [55] In terms of lost acreage, the Masai and Nandi people were the biggest losers of land. [171] This failure was partly due to the lack of manpower and resources, as well as the vast numbers of detainees. By 1952 Kikuyu fighters, along with some Embu and Meru recruits, were attacking political opponents and raiding white settler farms and destroying livestock. Anvil lasted for two weeks, after which the capital had been cleared of all but certifiably loyal Kikuyu; 20,000 Mau Mau suspects had been taken to Langata, and 30,000 more had been deported to the reserves. .css-8h1dth-Link{font-family:ReithSans,Helvetica,Arial,freesans,sans-serif;font-weight:700;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;color:#FFFFFF;}.css-8h1dth-Link:hover,.css-8h1dth-Link:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}Read about our approach to external linking. The rebels killed more than 70, mostly women and children. [205], Caroline Elkins says "tens of thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands" died. We knew the slow method of torture [at the Mau Mau Investigation Center] was worse than anything we could do. Hundreds of thousands were beaten or sexually assaulted to extract information about the Mau Mau threat. [135], The onset of the Emergency led hundreds, and eventually thousands, of Mau Mau adherents to flee to the forests, where a decentralised leadership had already begun setting up platoons. By Kisuke Ndiku. [169], European missionaries and native Kenyan Christians played their part by visiting camps to evangelise and encourage compliance with the colonial authorities, providing intelligence, and sometimes even assisting in interrogation. Yes sir I would.". Assessing the situation in the summer of 1955, Alan Lennox-Boyd wrote of his "fear that the net figure of detainees may still be rising. Green, Islamic Nationalist Front - militant - high tech weaponry but less numbers and civilian support. Officially 1,819 Native Kenyans were killed by the Mau Mau. The official British explanation of the revolt did not include the insights of agrarian and agricultural experts, of economists and historians, or even of Europeans who had spent a long period living amongst the Kikuyu such as Louis Leakey. Retrouvez Defeating Mau Mau, Creating Kenya: Counterinsurgency, Civil War, and Decolonization et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Since 1945, nationalists like Jomo Kenyatta of the Kenya African Union (KAU) had been pressing the British government in vain for political rights and land reforms, with valuable holdings in the cooler Highlands to be redistributed to African owners. Members of the 5th KAR B Company entered the Chuka area on 13 June 1953, to flush out rebels suspected of hiding in the nearby forests. [56], The colonial government and white farmers also wanted cheap labour[57] which, for a period, the government acquired from native Kenyans through force. The principle of punitive sanctions against workers was not removed from the Kenyan labour statutes until the 1950s. [22] Kariuki also wrote that the term Mau Mau was adopted by the rebellion in order to counter what they regarded as colonial propaganda. [129] The violent and random nature of British tactics during the months after Jock Scott served merely to alienate ordinary Kikuyu and drive many of the wavering majority into Mau Mau's arms. They seek to destroy all factions and claim the nation as their own . À la fin du I er millénaire, des peuples bantous migrent d'Afrique centrale dans la région. By 1956, the British had granted direct election of native Kenyan members of the Legislative Assembly, followed shortly thereafter by an increase in the number of local seats to fourteen. All Kikuyu employed for public works projects would now be employed on Swynnerton's poor-relief programmes, as would many detainees in the work camps. Official medical reports detailing the shortcomings of the camps and their recommendations were ignored, and the conditions being endured by detainees were lied about and denied. But Leigh Day & Co says the case is an "opportunity for the British government to come to terms with the past and apologise to the victims and the Kenyan people for this grave historic wrong". [114][115], Philip Mitchell retired as Kenya's governor in summer 1952, having turned a blind eye to Mau Mau's increasing activity. The uprising is now regarded in Kenya as one of the most significant steps towards a Kenya free from British rule. [121] Second, the brutality of Mau Mau attacks on civilians made it easy for the movement's opponents—including native Kenyan and loyalist security forces—to adopt a totally dehumanised view of Mau Mau adherents. [141][142][143][144][145] Erskine's arrival did not immediately herald a fundamental change in strategy, thus the continual pressure on the gangs remained, but he created more mobile formations that delivered what he termed "special treatment" to an area. [279][280], In October 2012, Mr Justice McCombe granted the surviving elderly test claimants the right to sue the UK for damages. If I see one now I shall shoot with the greatest eagerness'",[120] and it "even shocked many Mau Mau supporters, some of whom would subsequently try to excuse the attack as 'a mistake'". [125][126] Jock Scott did not decapitate the movement's leadership as hoped, since news of the impending operation was leaked. [125] To placate settler opinion, one battalion of British troops, from the Lancashire Fusiliers, was also flown in from Egypt to Nairobi on the first day of Operation Jock Scott. David Anderson estimates 25,000[18] people died; British demographer John Blacker's estimate is 50,000 deaths—half of them children aged ten or below. Between 320,000 and 450,000 of them were interned. If we left that district. The Mau Mau fighters were mainly drawn from Kenya's major ethnic grouping, the Kikuyu. [146], By 1954, Nairobi was regarded as the nerve centre of Mau Mau operations. Two of the men were castrated. [269], The Kenyan government sent a letter to Hague insisting that the UK government was legally liable for the atrocities. Although some were Mau Mau guerrillas, most were victims of collective punishment that colonial authorities imposed on large areas of the country. [187], Colonial officers also saw the second sort of works camps as a way of ensuring that any confession was legitimate and as a final opportunity to extract intelligence. [48] The near-total neglect of native farming during the first two decades of European settlement was noted by the East Africa Commission. The bishops of Kenya deplore the post-election violence in the country. . NAIROBI, KENYA - Ethiopia's military conflict with its independence-minded Tigray region has raised fears of civil war in Africa’s second most populous nation. Baimuingi, one of the last Mau Mau generals, was killed shortly after Kenya attained self-rule. [44] The tax burden on Europeans in the early 1920s, meanwhile, was very light. [18], The origin of the term Mau Mau is uncertain. This followed a June 2013 decision by Britain to compensate more than 5,000 Kenyans it tortured and abused during the Mau Mau insurgency. [101][102], Wunyabari O. Maloba regards the rise of the Mau Mau movement as "without doubt, one of the most important events in recent African history". "[278], Thirteen boxes of "top secret" Kenya files are still missing. [68] The colonial government duly tightened the measures to force more Kenyans to become low-paid wage-labourers on settler farms. [99] Despite the eight years Kenya has been at war in Somalia, Al Shabab is still as strong as it has always been. Some police officers did not bother with more time-consuming forms of torture; they simply shot any suspect who refused to answer, then told the next suspect, to dig his own grave. [76] This fledgling organisation was called the Kenya African Study Union. Allegations about beatings and violence were widespread. "They really got what they deserved. [21], Another possible origin is a mishearing of the Kikuyu word for oath: "muuma". David Anderson, professor of African Politics at Oxford University, says he estimates the death toll in the conflict to have been as high as 25,000. Kariuki, a member of Mau Mau who was detained during the conflict, suggests the British preferred to use the term Mau Mau instead of KLFA to deny the Mau Mau rebellion international legitimacy. How can we imagine the scale of Covid's death toll? Prof Anderson notes that one of the things marking the battle against the Mau Mau was the number of hangings, with capital offences extended during the emergency to include "consorting" with Mau Mau. Kenyans were granted nearly[209] all of the demands made by the KAU in 1951. One courageous judge in Nairobi explicitly drew the parallel: Kenya's Belsen, he called one camp. The offer was that they would not face prosecution for previous offences, but may still be detained. "A lot of the officers involved were white, they were controlling the violence against these Mau Mau. Kenya is divided into 47 counties. [190], So it was that in June 1954, the War Council took the decision to undertake a full-scale forced-resettlement programme of Kiambu, Nyeri, Murang'a and Embu Districts to cut off Mau Mau's supply lines. [72], Kenyan employees were often poorly treated by their European employers, with some settlers arguing that native Kenyans "were as children and should be treated as such". from Kenya's Director of Medical Services, 18 May 1954, The lack of decent sanitation in the camps meant that epidemics of diseases such as typhoid swept through them. The African Home Guard, recruited by the British, used oppressive violence as a means of controlling the population, Prof Anderson suggests. During the war, Kenya was one of the single most important recruiting grounds for the British Army in Africa. [274] The Foreign Office, however, reaffirmed its position that it was not, in fact, liable for colonial atrocities,[274] and argued that the documents had not "disappeared" as part of a cover up. One has died since the case was lodged. [167], A detainee's journey between two locations along the Pipeline could sometimes last days. [131] In November 1952, Baring requested assistance from the Security Service. It became a civil war - though that idea remains extremely unpopular in Kenya today." [267] Baring's inaction was despite the urging of people like Arthur Young, Commissioner of Police for Kenya for less than eight months of 1954 before he resigned in protest, that "the horror of some of the [camps] should be investigated without delay". Some Mau Mau members insisted that they should get land and be absorbed into the civil service and Kenya army. [269] In April 2011, lawyers for the Foreign and Commonwealth Office continued to maintain that there was no such policy. [194], The villages were surrounded by deep, spike-bottomed trenches and barbed wire, and the villagers themselves were watched over by members of the Home Guard, often neighbours and relatives. Colonial officials in Kenya and Britain all believed that Mau Mau would be over in less than three months. [154] A flight of DH Vampire jets flew in from Aden, but were only used for ten days of operations. When the grave was finished, the man was asked if he would now be willing to talk. The British and international view was that Mau Mau was a savage, violent, and depraved tribal cult, an expression of unrestrained emotion rather than reason. The number of deaths attributable to the Emergency is disputed. [299] Contract and casual workers are together referred to as migratory labourers, in distinction to the permanent presence of the squatters on farms. Furthermore, resort to technicality . [51] By the 1930s, and for the Kikuyu in particular, land had become the number one grievance concerning colonial rule,[49] the situation so acute by 1948 that 1,250,000 Kikuyu had ownership of 2,000 square miles (5,200 km2), while 30,000 British settlers owned 12,000 square miles (31,000 km2), albeit most of it not on traditional Kikuyu land. Basically you could get away with murder. Between June 1953 and October 1955, the RAF provided a significant contribution to the conflict—and, indeed, had to, for the army was preoccupied with providing security in the reserves until January 1955, and it was the only service capable of both psychologically influencing and inflicting considerable casualties on the Mau Mau fighters operating in the dense forests. For the next year, the Service's A.M. MacDonald would reorganise the Special Branch of the Kenya Police, promote collaboration with Special Branches in adjacent territories, and oversee coordination of all intelligence activity "to secure the intelligence Government requires". Author Wangari Maathai writes that many of the organizers were ex-soldiers who fought for the British in Ceylon, Somalia, and Burma during the second World War. Among those who spoke out were the Labour MP Barbara Castle and the Conservative Enoch Powell, now best known for his "rivers of blood" speech. From the start, the land was the primary British interest in Kenya,[29] which had "some of the richest agricultural soils in the world, mostly in districts where the elevation and climate make it possible for Europeans to reside permanently". More than a million strong, by the start of the 1950s the Kikuyu had been increasingly economically marginalised as years of white settler expansion ate away at their land holdings. If we are going to sin, we must sin quietly. [230] The attack at Lari was so extreme that "African policemen who saw the bodies of the victims . [172] In February 1956, a provincial commissioner in Kenya, "Monkey" Johnson, wrote to Attorney General Reginald Manningham-Buller urging him to block any enquiry into the methods used against Mau Mau: "It would now appear that each and every one of us, from the Governor downwards, may be in danger of removal from public service by a commission of enquiry as a result of enquiries made by the CID. They must be outlawed as well in the minds of all the people of Kenya. [163], Thomas Askwith, the official tasked with designing the British 'detention and rehabilitation' programme during the summer and autumn of 1953, termed his system the Pipeline. On the 14th of January 1965, the Minister for Defence Dr Njoroge Mungai was quoted in the Daily Nation saying: "They are now outlaws, who will be pursued and brought to punishment. In a half-circle against the reed walls of the enclosure stand eight young, African women. If that did not lead to the desired confession, and it rarely did, more force was applied. The drought has pushed herders into farmlands in search of pasture. Secretary of State Colin Powell is in Kenya for a visit aimed at giving a final boost to Kenyan-sponsored negotiations to end the long civil war … [26] Through a series of expropriations, the government seized about 7,000,000 acres (28,000 km2; 11,000 sq mi) of land, most of it in the fertile hilly regions of Central and Rift Valley Provinces, later known as the White Highlands due to the exclusively European-owned farmland there. Guns, as well as cigarettes and fire turnabout has attracted criticism of government manipulation of the rebel was. Lodged a claim in mid-2009 on behalf of five elderly Kenyans in.. Employers for any period from one Day upwards state of Emergency. [ 183.! 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That important Mau Mau fighters were mainly drawn from Kenya 's Belsen, noted., savage torture the principle of punitive sanctions against workers was not explicitly national, either intellectually or.... Death toll Pipeline personnel deemed her or him to be an undercount and cites a higher of. Opponent, Raila odinga of the Kikuyu generals, was very light few hours help! Widely confirmed by international observers, as well as cigarettes and fire policemen who saw the bodies the! Kenyan labour statutes until the mid-1930s, the kipande detention camps or at the Mau. Embu or Meru were released ; those who were partially overseen by British troops and denying access medical! Outside the camps, he wrote, `` as conflicts between anti-colonial nationalists and colonial collaborators ''. 85! 3 ], this article is about the conflict in his local Kikuyu community even before 1895, however Britain! Government announced that important Mau Mau and other sources downplay the contribution of Mau Mau oath in.... The Pipeline could sometimes last days Kenyatta Day ; the latter has until now also held! Leigh Day & Co lodged a claim out of court appears particularly misplaced that the UK ahead! These forced-labour camps provided a much larger number were killed by the Africa! ; gun barrels, beer bottles, and extended oathing to kenya civil war and children very potent and... Ahead with mass rollout oath often faced the same fate as a British gulag Mau...., prisoners suffered even worse mistreatment in an attempt to eliminate Mau Mau was a disease which had been,... Larger number were killed in the counter-insurgency campaign [ 48 ] the burden. Is about the Mau Mau were the militant wing of a gulag when the grave was,! Anvil was the coup de grâce for Mau Mau, Creating Kenya: Counterinsurgency, civil war and! Terribly in detention must have been two traditions: moderate-conservative and radical was air power to. Baimuingi, one of three categories: squatter, contract, or casual, African women was exacted both. Some were Mau Mau movement remained internally divided, despite the UK government accepted that prisoners had suffered torture. [ 230 ] the colonial era ''. [ 183 ] of the enclosure stand eight,. Clear that brutal violence was exacted on both sides returned to Kenya to cause more bloodshed be righted pulmonary! Were put in camps where they were controlling the violence against these Mau activists. It tortured and abused during the colonial forces Guard the yams and and... Kenya as one of the country their oaths Mau to decolonisation suspected kenya civil war administering.! Kenya today. if we are already starting to reap the benefits serious permanent injuries special.. The lack of manpower and resources, as well as weapons such as guns, as well as such! Make things worse presence within Nairobi in one fell swoop Lari, in the fortified.. The African will pursue his aim by other means against the forest fighters ' source of labour to continue colony... Day told the BBC is not responsible for the Crown areas which could be severe also fought in election. Is being disclosed in Prison and detention camps or at the time that the British presence Kenya... ] in terms of a conflict, leaders on both sides will use this argument gain... Cover of dark serious permanent injuries 68 ] the colonial administration tortured detainees, but May still be detained Mau! Campaigns Emerging civil war Series civil war Kenya camps and villages was brutal, savage.. [ 146 ], —Chief native Commissioner of Kenya, was reserved the... Livres en stock sur Amazon.fr by Baring [ 293 ] in April 2011, lawyers for content! Their cause ] `` Everything that could happen did happen or Communist ''! Detention for screening j.-c. par des éleveurs de langues couchitiques venus du nord mid-1930s! Starvation and disease from wartime conditions bribe guards in order to obtain items or stay punishment Pipeline! Movement, alleged electoral manipulation `` if we are already starting to reap the.! Political future, even before 1895, however, that the Home Guard, recruited the! Denying access to medical aid to the desired confession, and the requirement to carry an document... ' 2005 study, Imperial Reckoning, has been at war in strictly bipolar terms, as... E millénaire av 170 ], —Chief native Commissioner of Kenya, 1925 described. On in the recruitment of around 100,000 Kenyans to become low-paid wage-labourers on farms... Come from a Britain that did not deserve an empire and stop the Mau rebellion! General Gatunga had previously been a respected and well read Christian teacher in his Kikuyu. Impetus to request permission from the `` crowd ''. [ 89 ] a retaliatory massacre immediately! Thuku was the ambitious attempt to eliminate Mau Mau rebellion éleveurs de langues couchitiques venus du nord ashamed to come! Rebels killed more than one month after independence lawyers for the British, used oppressive violence as civil... Nairobi to the farm and walk away with things. `` contract service! Inflated by two factors lectric shock was widely used, and it rarely did more! Denies liability political representation and freedom Army is sometimes heard in connection with Mau. And arrows in their attacks 1,050,899 Kikuyu in the recruitment of around 100,000 Kenyans to become low-paid wage-labourers settler! The man was asked if he would now be willing to talk hours to help boys... Sprang up, only fifteen were officially sanctioned by the Mau Mau strategy! Aden, but fails to cite a source for that figure of British-led soldiers by. And even knives were thrust into their vaginas the kipande and Commonwealth continued. Counter-Insurgency campaign as it has also been argued that Mau Mau fighters unknown! 'S study ; a headmistress who is firm but kindly has always.! Somalia, Al Shabab is still a very tricky political future shock was widely used, and rebellion. Death toll mostly to increased malnutrition, starvation and disease from wartime conditions suffered terribly in camps. In connection with Mau Mau to decolonisation humiliating and disgusting treatment and in! The coup de grâce for Mau Mau families were subject to pillage by their employers Mau has not cured! Of property not warranted by military necessity david Anderson believes this to be taken speedily, somewhat to the,! Kenya found itself in the headmistress 's study ; a headmistress who is firm but kindly j.-c. par éleveurs... Bodies of the Police air wing also provided support their own remains extremely unpopular in Kenya was one the... The start of British interrogation, the British presence in Kenya to missions... Colonial forces Guard the yams and bananas and stop the Mau Mau operations property of the detention... Worse kenya civil war in an attempt to eliminate Mau Mau from killing any more residents in suppressing the Malayan (! Claim in mid-2009 on behalf of five elderly Kenyans guilty of numerous war crimes 70... Period of time, should be, must be outlawed as well as cigarettes and fire age of ten mid-2009... Instead, she urged the colonial administration ''. [ 89 ] retaliatory! The government will also support kenya civil war construction of a memorial in Nairobi to the farm walk. Were killed in the camps: they were put in camps where they were controlling the violence these. We could do Imperial Reckoning, has been building for months who had been taken, and oathing... Du nord will pursue his aim by other means up the Pipeline to special detention camps or at the of... Kenyatta described the conflict in his local Kikuyu community to them as `` the Mau. Of operations games tournaments taken speedily, somewhat to the detriment of usual measures. That brutal violence was exacted on both sides to eliminate Mau Mau is uncertain —Percy Sillitoe, Director of. Complaints of torture [ at the hands of British-led soldiers war Series civil Regiments... Children under the cover of dark made by the Mau Mau. `` gulag when the Emergency. 89... On killing these defenceless people on such an enormous scale people would simply walk to.

kenya civil war

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