Yes These individuals are often known to be longstanding members of the intervention communities and being ‘bilingual’ was frequently used as a criteria for recruitment. Conceptualization, Writing – original draft, Changes in blood pressure among users of lay health worker or volunteer operated community-based blood pressure programs over time: a systematic review protocol. Approximately 29.1 million people in USA have diabetes, and the total medical costs and lost work and wages for people with diabetes were estimated to be $245 billion in 2014 ( 1 ). From the reviewed studies, only 13 (24%) reported that CHWs were provided training updates in order to support their initial training. If you are not familiar with the guidance in relation to diabetes care in your work setting, it is important … School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa, In the third model of coordination, a more experienced CHW is used to coordinate other CHWs. While individual education was usually delivered in patient’s homes, group education was delivered at various locations such as health facilities, churches, or other community settings. One study looked at the effectiveness of the different models of coordination mentioned above and showed that the NCM model of coordination was more effective than interventions where CHWs were not coordinated by nurses or where nurses alone provided T2DM services[68]. We found different coordination models which either made CHWs outsiders or insiders to patient routine care. Diabetes education is not always available in every country and even when available, patients do not always have access and therefore are not reached with this critical component of care[43,67]. An article was included if the primary intervention focused on T2DM self-management or involved the use of CHWs or similar community-based non-professional health personnel. Visualization, Studies have observed that increased knowledge does not necessarily translate into changes in self-management behaviour[29,37], and there is a need for further research to answer questions related to the association or lack of it between improved T2DM knowledge, self-efficacy and ultimately glycemic control. Lehmann and Sanders (2007) noted that CHWs often work peripherally and are not directly coordinated by the health system, which can make it difficult to fully participate in patient management. HbA1c is the recommended standard test for glycemic monitoring in diabetes as it measures average plasma glucose over 2–3 months[81,82] and is thus the appropriate test if glycaemic control is the preferred outcome measure. Iteration between all the authors however ensured rigorous article selection and charting. Keegan CN, Johnston CA, Cardenas VJ Jr, Vaughan EM. These educators teach people with diabetes to understand and manage the following: How to change health habits, including making supportive food choices, exercising and quitting smoking, if applicable. To identify the views of nurses on their current and future roles in care in the community for people with Type 2 diabetes. For interventions at population level that will potentially last several years, ongoing training will however be necessary. They are from, or have a close understanding of, the community they serve. Bennet et al recognized such challenges to the use of Hb1Ac in poorer countries[82]. This could result in researcher bias in including or excluding articles from full review. Evidence and lessons from these interventions can be useful for Low- and Middle-Income countries (LMICs) such as South Africa that are experiencing a marked increase in T2DM prevalence. Chronic Disease Initiative for Africa, Division of Diabetic Medicine and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, Roles Findley et al (2012) in a New York State survey among CHWs and employers identified five basic roles played by CHWs including advocacy, education, community outreach, referral and cultural bridging[75]. Diagram showing number of articles…, Fig 2. Other instrumental roles reported in the selected studies included helping with paperwork for services, accompanying patients, and arranging health services. We found a five-fold increase in the number of relevant articles between the five year period 2011–2015 and the six year period 2000–2005, as shown in Fig 2. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198424.g002. USA.gov. Other studies reported using physical activity, medication adherence, number of clinic visits, fruit and/or vegetable intake as the measure of success. Blood sugar control and blood lipid levels were the two most frequently measured outcomes in CHW led T2DM self-management interventions in our review (Fig 5). 2016. Key words: Role, Diabetes, Specialist, Nurse, DSN. Furthermore research into the relationship between diabetes self-management support activities (education, support, advocacy), diabetes knowledge, self- efficacy and improved outcomes will provide more information on what works and should be pursued further. Where a nurse was dedicated solely to T2DM intervention by coordinating CHWs, such nurse was often referred to as nurse-case manager (NCM). Brussels, Belgium; 2015. Fourteen studies (24%) measured the lipid profile of participants as a primary or secondary outcome. Globally the number of people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has risen significantly over the last few decades. Training in study policies and procedures, technical skills, and diabetes education alone may not provide CHWs enough capacity to perform the role of health educators, and more may be required[80]. 2015 Mar 12;106(3):e157-64. It is important to mention that in HIC, HbA1c tests may be freely available as a routine diabetes investigation, but for many LMIC, routine access to HbA1c is limited. This initially involves the paediatrician, the nurse or nurse specialist and the dietician. Peer reviewed scientific and grey literature was searched using a string of keywords, selecting English full-text articles published between 2000 and 2015. The search was limited to articles published in English between January 2000 and December 2015 and identified abstracts were imported into Mendeley desktop software for review. The funders played no role in the preparation of this manuscript. CHWs deliver curriculum based education using manuals adapted from an existing document or documents developed purposely for the intervention. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198424.g004. Gary TL, Batts-Turner M, Yeh HC, Hill-Briggs F, Bone LR, et al. Yes The SMART2D consortium includes the following partner institutions: Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium; Collaborative Care Systems, Finland; Makerere University, School of Public Health, Uganda; University of the Western Cape, School of Public Health, South Africa; and Uppsala University, Sweden. 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